Typical risk factors
As an important raw material of fluorine chemical industry, hydrofluoric acid is very corrosive.
Hydrofluoric acid reacts with metal equipment and pipes to produce hydrogen, which has the potential safety of hydrogen combustion and even explosion.
In the production of tetrafluoroethylene and hexafluoropropylene, many toxic substances are distributed in the plant, especially the pyrolysis gas produced in the self-cracking reactor, including more than 30 kinds of toxic substances, such as fluorinated olefins and perfluoroisobutylene. These gases have a significant impact on human health;
4. Polymerizer is the main chemical reaction space and pressure vessel in chemical production. When the polymerizer is affected by physical overpressure and excessive temperature, it is possible to cause the polymerization explosion accident in the polymerizer.
The typical case is tetrafluoroethylene, which is active in nature and produces a large amount of heat in the polymerization reaction. Moreover, the reaction rate is very fast. If insufficient temperature control measures are not taken, it is easy to cause the scene to get out of control. In addition, if the dosage of additives is not appropriate, the heat can not be released in time, the same explosion will occur. Especially after the deep reaction of tetrafluoroethylene, free carbon black and tetrafluorocarbon will be produced, the explosive power is equal to that of black powder, and the influence is great.
5. Liquid chlorine is often used in the production of organic fluorine. However, liquid chlorine usually contains a small amount of nitrogen trichloride, when its volume ratio reaches 5 ~ 6, it is possible to explode, so it is necessary to avoid the accumulation of nitrogen trichloride in the production process.
Preventive measures and recommendations
Tank prevention: the production of fluorine chemical industry has special requirements for the construction of storage tank area. It is necessary to build a secondary anti-overflow cofferdam and treat the ground with concrete so as to avoid fluoride leakage. The total volume of cofferdam must be larger than the maximum tank volume, and equipped with fire protection equipment and emergency equipment to ensure that after fluoride leakage, the tank pump can be used to return it to the storage tank, and the remaining materials can be cleaned and sent to the sewage treatment plant.
The production of fluorine chemical industry involves a variety of dangerous processes, including fluorination process, chlorination process, pyrolysis process, etc. Therefore, the quality requirements of the production plant are very high. Select the same batch of equipment or piping with the national production license manufacturer.
3. Installation of an independent safety instrumentation system: for processes involving fluorination and chlorination, it is important to have an independent safety meter system and to evaluate the safety integrity level of the system because of the high risk factor. To ensure that it can meet the actual production requirements.
4.avoid the accumulation of nitrogen trichloride: the equipment shall not be assembled by casing or coil type gasifier without the use of kettle gasifier; the temperature of liquid chlorine gasifier shall be controlled in a reasonable range; Set up drain valve to ensure regular discharge and desilting, reduce accumulation of nitrogen trichloride.
5, prevent the leakage of raw materials: organic fluorine chemical production process, there are a large number of corrosive substances, so we should arrange regular professional pressure vessels, thermometers, emergency cutoff devices, pressure gauges, blasting discs, Level gauge and safety valve for functional inspection, timely replacement of aging, damaged equipment, as far as possible to reduce the possibility of leakage of raw materials. In addition, blasting disc and safety valve can be used in series to avoid corrosion.
6, strengthen the temperature control: if the temperature control problem in fluorine chemical production, it is easy to cause the chemical reaction to react too fast because the temperature is too high, thus causing the explosion accident. Therefore, in the production process, we must control the temperature and pressure, using the mixing system to avoid the problem of local overheating. In addition, the safety interlocking system can be set up to calculate the cooling system area, flow rate and leakage system parameters, so as to ensure that the system design is more scientific.
7. Using automatic control technology: the automatic control system DCS can monitor the main machine pump, equipment process parameter, safety interlock signal and so on in the production process in real time, so that the manager can find the problem in time and take measures. At the same time, automatic control reduces manual operation, reducing the possibility of casualties.
8. the personal protection of workers: first, every production personnel should receive operation safety education to form safety awareness and self-protection consciousness; secondly, the operator should do strict isolation work and safety protection work. Operators in and out of the passage to more protection, operators to enter the workshop to wear a good safety protection, the quality of the protection should be dealt with in time; Finally, before the inspection and repair of toxic production equipment, try to empty the toxic substances and wear safety gear before inspection.
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